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【中考英语语法汇总】非谓语动词

一、动词不定式

1.动词不定式作宾语。

1)在动词 want, hope, would like, decide, wish, choose, try, need等后常用动词不定式作宾语。

I hope______ (hear) from you soon.

2). think/ find/ feel/ make it+ adj+ to do sth

He found it difficult_______ (get) to sleep.

3). stop to do sth/ stop doing sth

stop to do sth停下来去做某事 stop doing sth停止正在做的事。

After working for a long time, He has to stop_______( have) a rest. He was very tired, so he had to stop______ (work).

2.动词不定式作宾语补。

1).to的不定式作宾补的动词有: ask/ like/ would like/ teach/ tell/ want/ help+ sb+ to do sth

Please ask him_________ (come) quickly.

2).省掉 to的不定式作宾补的动词有: let/ make/ hear/ see/ notice/ have/ watch+ sb+ do sth

注:省掉 to的不定式的句子变被动语态时,需要还原 to.

He made the baby_______ (stop) crying.

The baby was made___________ crying.

3.动词不定式作主语

1).动词不定式常可用作句子的主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

2).常用 it作形式主语,而将不定式放在句子后面。

To do sth+谓语动词+ adj/ n= It+谓语动词+ adj/ n+ to do sth To get an injection is a little painful._____ a little painful________ an injection

4.动词不定式作定语

动词不定式作定语放在被修饰词之后

名词或代词+ to do(介词)

注:若构成的不定式的动词为不及物动词时,其后加上相应的介词。

I want a pen to write______.

I want a piece of paper to write______.

5.动词不定式与疑问词连用疑问词+ to do sth

注:在宾语从句中,若主从句的主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+ to do sth.

Can you tell me how I can get to the hospital?

Can you tell me_____________ the hospital.

6.动词不定式可作状语

1).动词不定式可作目的状语

come/ go/ leave后面接动词不定式作目的状语。

He came here______ (get) his book.

2).动词不定式可作原因状语表语形容词( sorry/ sad/ happy/ glad/ afraid/ pleased)后与动词不定式连用作原因状语 He was glad_______ (see) his wife.

3).动词不定式可作结果状语在 tooto…, notenough to…句型中的动词不定式作结果状语。 He was too tired_______ (walk) on.

7.动词不定式作表语

be+ to do sth

注:动词不定式作表语可以和主语的位置互换,且常表将来。

Her wish is_______ (become) a doctor. __________ is her wish.

8.动词不定式的否定形式

在动词不定式的前面加 not.

He told me_______( not stay) here.

9.动词不定式符号的省略和保留情况。

1).动词不定式符号的省略情况若两个或两个以上的不定式并列时,第一个不定式符号不能省略,其余的省掉 to.但两者有对比关系时, to都不能省略。 Edison’s mother taught him to write and read. I havent decided to go home or to go to the cinema.

2)省掉不定式而保留动词不定式符号 to的情况。

Will you take a walk with me? I’m glad to.

Would you like to join my birthday party? I would love to.

二、动名词

1.动名词相当于一个名词,作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

Reading in bed______ (be) bad for your eyes.

2.有些动词或动词短语后面,只能接动名词作宾语。

三、现在分词

1.现在分词常放在 see, hear, watch, notice等之后作宾补。

I saw the boy____ (play) in the street just now.

2.现在分词作定语常放在被修饰词之前,现在分词短语要放在被修饰词的后面,相当于一个定语从句。

A sleeping baby= a baby who is sleeping. Did you know the man talking to Mr Li?= Did you know the man who was talking to Mr Li?

3.现在分词表伴随情况 He came into the classroom, carrying a book.

四、过去分词

1.作宾补 have/ get+ sth+ done表示请别人干某事 I had my TV repaired last night.

2.作定语 单一的过去分词作定语,要放在被修饰词的前面,过去分词短语作定语要放在被修饰词的后面,相当于一个定语从句。

Have you ever read any books written by Luxun? Have you ever read any books__________ written by Luxun?

3.作表语

过去分词作表语已经形容词化

My cup is broken.