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【中考英语语法汇总】动词语法讲解

(一)动词概述

动词是表示人或事物的动作、存在、变化的词。分析 95年至今的中考不难发现,动词部分主要考查学生对主动结构中各个时态的运用。一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在进行时和现在完成时出现的概率较高。而被动语态主要是考一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时和情态动词的被动语态。

(二)基础知识梳理

1.动词的种类

根据其词义和其在谓语中的作用可分为实义动词、助动词和情态动词。根据其在句子中的功用可分为及物动词和不及物动词,连系动词界于两者之间。

1)实义动词:意义完全,能独立用作谓语。如: enablewatchrunopen等。

2)连系动词:是一个表示谓语关系的动词。它必须在后面接表语(通常为名词或形容词)。如: seemlooksmelltastesoundgetbecometurnbe等。

3)助动词:本身没有词汇意义。不能单独用作谓语。在句中与实义动词一起构成各种时态、语态、语气以及否定和疑问结构。如: dodoesdid等。

4)情态动词:词义不完全。在句中不能单独作谓语,只能与实义动词一起构成谓语。如: canmaymustneedought to等。

2.动词的时态:

时态

常用的提示语

一般现在时

alwaysusuallysometimesofteneveryonce a weekin the morningin Decemberin springon Mondays等。

一般过去时

agojust nowbefore 2005yesterdaylast Fridayoncethe other daythose daysonce upon a timelong before等。

一般将来时

tomorrowthe coming... in the futurenext Tuesdayin two hourssome daysoonbefore longthis evening等。

现在进行时

nowat the momentlooklistenbe quitethese daysstill等。

过去进行时

this time yesterdayat that timefrom 9 to 11 last Fridaywhenwhile等。

现在完成时

sinceforalreadyyetjustin the past few years/ monthsin the last few weeks/ months/ days等。

过去完成时

by the end of last term/ month/ yearby yesterdayby 2004by last Monday等。

过去将来时

大都出现在主句动词为一般过去时的宾语从句中。

有些动词所表示的动作即便在说话时正在进行,也不能用进行时。这些动词通常表示情感、想法、感觉或所属。

表示情感的动词: likedislikelovehate.

表示想法的动词: believeknowwantmeanunderstandremember.

表示感觉的动词: feelseeheartastesmell.

表示所属的动词: belongownhave.

有些动词常用进行时表示将来,如: comegoleavearrive

3.动词的被动语态

英语的语态分为主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者。被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。只有及物动词才有被动语态。它的基本结构为:助动词 be+及物动词的过去分词。所有的时态变化在助动词 be上。以动词 sing为例。

时态/语态

主动语态

被动语态

一般现在时

Jay sings many songs every year.

Many songs are sung by Jay every year.

一般过去时

Jay sang many songs last year.

Many songs were sung by Jay last year.

一般将来时

Jay will sing/ is going to sing many songs this year.

Many songs will be sung/ are going to be sung by Jay this year.

现在进行时

Jay is singing an English song.

An English song is being sung by Jay.

过去进行时

Jay was singing a song just now.

A song was being sung by Jay just now.

现在完成时

Jay has sung lots of songs in the past

few years.

Lots of songs have been sung by Jay in

the past few years.

过去完成时

Jay had sung plenty of songs by last year.

Plenty of songs had been sung by Jay by last year.

过去将来时

Jay said he would sing more songs in the future.

Jay said more songs would be sung in the future.

情态动词的被动语态为:情态动词+助动词 be+及物动词的过去分词。