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初中英语定语从句知识点:关系代词的用法

( 1)如果先行词是 all, much, anything, something, nothing, everything, little, none等不定代词,关系代词一般只用 that,不用 which例如:

All the people that are present burst into tears.

( 2)如果先等词被形容词最高级以及 first, last, any, only, few, mush, no, some, very等词修饰,关系代词常用 that,不用 which, who,或 whom例如:

( 3)非限制性定语从句中,不能用关系代词 that,作宾语用的关系代词也不能省略。例如:

There are about seven million people taking part in the election, most of whomare well educated.

( 4) which还有一种特殊用法,它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主句所表示的整体概念或部分概念。在这种从句中, which可以作主语,也可以作宾语或表语,多数情况下意思是与 and this相似,并可以指人。例如:

He succeeded in the competition, which made his parents very happy.

( 5) that可指人或物,在从句中作表语,(指人作主语时多用 who)仅用于限制性定语从句中。

( 6) which可作表语,既可指人,以可指物。指人时,一般指从事某种职业或是有种特征品性或才能的人。 Which引导的定语从句可以限制性的,也可以是非限制性的。

( 7)如果作先作词的集体名词着眼于集体的整体,关系代词用 which;若是指集体中的各个成员,则用 who

( 8)先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词应该用 that例如:

The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely.

( 9)如果先行词是 anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody,关系代词应该用 whowhom,不用 which例如:

Is there anyone here who will go with you?

3."介词+关系代词"是一个普遍使用的结构

( 1)"介词+关系代词"可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。"介词+关系代词"结构中的介词可以是 in, on, about, from, for, with, to at, of, without等,关系代词只可用 whomwhich,不可用 that

( 2) from where为"介词+关系副词"结构,但也可以引导定语从句。例如:

We stood at the top of the hill, from where we can see the town..

( 3)像 listen to, look at, depend on, pay attention to, take care of等固定短语动词,在定语从句中一般不宜将介词与动词分开。例如:

This is the boy whom she has taken care of.