同学们, 2013年的圣诞节即将来临,让我们一起来普及一下有关圣诞节的知识吧!


In Christianity, Christmas is the festival celebrating the Nativity of Jesus, the Christian belief that the Messiah foretold in the Old Testament's Messianic prophecies was born to the Virgin Mary.



Even in countries where there is a strong Christian tradition, Christmas celebrations can vary markedly from country tocountry. For many Christians, a religious service plays an important part in the recognition of the season. Secular processions, featuring Santa Claus and other seasonal figures are often held. Family reunions and the exchange of gifts are a widespread feature of the season.



A special Christmas family meal is an important part ofthe celebration for many, but what is actually served can vary greatly from country to country. In England, and countries in fluenced by its traditions, a standard Christmas meal would include turkey, potatoes, vegetables, sausages and gravy, followed by Christmas pudding or mince pies. In Poland and other parts of eastern Europe and Scandinavia, fish of ten provides the traditional main course, but richer meat such as lambis increasingly served. Ham is the main meal in the Philippines, while in Germany, France and Austria, goose and pork are favored. Beef, ham and chicken in various recipes are popular throughout the world.



Since the 19 th century, the poinsettia, a native plantfrom Mexico, has been associated with Christmas. Other popular holiday plants include holly, mistletoe, red amaryllis, and Christmas cactus. Along with a Christmas tree, the interior of a home may be decorated with these plants, along with garlands and evergreen foliage. In Australia, North and South America, and Europe, it is traditional to decorate the outside of houses with lights and sometimes with illuminated sleighs, snowmen, and other Christmas figures. The traditional colors of Christmas are pinegreen (evergreen), snow white, and heart red.



In the thirteenth century, in France, Germany, and particularly, Italy, a strong tradition of popular Christmas songs in the native language developed. Christmas carols in English first appear in 1426. The songs we know specifically as carols were originally communal songs sung during celebrations like harvest tide as well as Christmas.

13世纪,法国德国、特别是在意大利,用当地语言写成的圣诞歌开始流行起来。第一首英语的圣诞赞歌写于 1426年。现在为我们所熟知的那些圣诞赞歌应该是和丰收节的传统一并起源的。


Christmas cards are usually exchanged during the weeks preceding Christmas Day on December 25 by many people( includingnon-Christians) in Western society and in Asia. The traditional greeting reads" wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year", much like the first commercial Christmas card, produced by Sir Henry Cole in London 1843.

没有规定吧,但在圣诞节互寄卡片的确是这个节日的传统,西方社会和亚洲都是。历史上的第一张商业圣诞卡片起源于 1843年的伦敦。(为保护环境还是建议大家寄电子卡片哟!


A number of nations have issued commemorative stamps at Christmastime. Postal customers will often use these stamps to mail Christmas cards, and they are popular with philatelists. These stamps are usually printed in considerable quantities.



The most famous and pervasive of these figures in modern celebration worldwide is Santa Claus, a mythical gift bringer, dressed in red, whose origins have disputed sources. Santa Claus isa corruption of the Dutch Sinterklaas, which means simply Saint Nicholas. Nicholas was Bishop of Myra( in modern day Turkey) in the fourth century. Among other saintly attributes, he was noted for the care of Children, generosity, and the giving of gifts.

全球最知名的圣诞人物恐怕就是圣诞老人了,他老人家带礼物、穿红衫,广受小盆友欢迎。他的英文名 SantaClaus是德语 Sinterklaas的误传,而 Sinterklaas的直译就是“圣塔尼古拉斯”了。尼古拉斯先生是 14世纪玛拉国(今土耳其)的主教,他非常关心孩子,慷慨大方、乐施礼物。后成为圣诞老人的原型。

9.小圣诞( Little Christmas)是怎么回事?

Little Christmas is one of the traditional names in Ireland for January 6, more commonly known in the rest of the worldas the Celebration of the Epiphany. It is so called because it was the day on which Christmas Day was celebrated under the Roman calendar, before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar. It is the traditional end of the Christmas season and the last day of the Christmas holidays for both primary and secondary schools in Ireland.

爱尔兰人把每年的 16日称为“小圣诞”——其他国家把这一天称为“主显日”。在乔治亚历通用以前,这一天是以罗马历计算的圣诞节。在爱尔兰,小圣诞被视为是圣诞季的最后一天,过了这一天,小学和中学就开学啦。(很像咱们的“过大年”啊!

10.女人的圣诞节( Women's Christmas)又是怎么回事儿?

Little Christmas is also called Women's Christmas, and sometimes Women's Little Christmas. It is so called because of the tradition of Irish men taking on all the household duties for the day and giving their wives a day off. Most women hold parties or goout to celebrate the day with their friends, sisters, mothers, aunts, etc. Bars and restaurants usually serve mostly women and girls on this night. Children often buy presents for their mothers and grandmothers.