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倒装用法大盘点

英语基本语序为主语在前,谓语在后。有时为了某种需要,如保持句子平衡、强调或固定的句型结构,而把谓语放在主语之前,这种语序叫倒装语序。在英语中,倒装有两种:全部倒装和部分倒装。今天我们就一起来看看这两种倒装吧!

一、全部倒装——把谓语全部放在主语之前,叫全部倒装。

1. There be句型中,用全部倒装。例如:

There was nobody in this school.

There is something wrong with the machine.

There are different opinions on it.

2. here/ there/ now/ then/ thus/ in/ up/ away等副词位于句首,谓语动词常用 come/ go/ lie/ run等,要用全部倒装。例如:

Here comes the bus!

There goes the bell.

Then followed three days of heavy rain!

注意:如主语是人称代词,则只把副词提前位于句首,主语和谓语的位置不倒装。例如:

Here they come!

Away they went.

3.如果句子把地点状语提前,谓语动词为 be/ sit/ come/ go/ lie/ stand等,需要全部倒装。例如:

On the hill stands a temple.

Around the corner exist two banks.

On every piece of paper was a picture of a horse.

4.为了句子平衡或强调,将表语置于句首,也用全部倒装。例如:

Gone are the days when we lived in the countryside.

Present at the meeting are my friends from South America.

5.直接引语的一部分或全部放在句首,需全部倒装。例如:

" What are you doing?" asked the teacher.

但如果主语为代词或谓语还有其他词修饰,则不倒装。例如:

" What are you doing?" he asked.

" How do you feel these days?" The teacher asked me like my mother.

二、部分倒装——只把助动词、情态动词或系动词放在主语之前,叫部分倒装。

1.一般疑问句和特殊疑问句用部分倒装。例如:

Do you have any ink?

What do you usually do on Sundays?

2.否定副词位于句首,如 no/ not/ never/ seldom/ little/ hardly/ rarely/ nowhere等,或否定副词短语位于句首,如 in no way, on no account, at no time, in no case, by no means等,句子用部分倒装。例如:

Never in my life have I heard such a thing.

Seldom does he come recently.

Hardly could she believe her own eyes.

At no time and under no circumstances will China be the first to use nuclear weapons.

3.以否定词 hardly/ scarcely... when, not only... but also, no sooner... than等开头的关联结构,句子进行部分倒装。例如:

Hardly/ Scarcely had he got on the bus when he heard a shout.

No sooner had I gone to sleep than the telephone rang.

Not only did he buy a bike for me but he also sent it to my house.

4.so... that, such... that句型中,如 so/ such位于句首,前半句倒装。例如:

So busy is he that he has no time to play with his daughter.

Such a good person was my teacher that we all admired her.

5. only位于句首修饰状语,则进行部分倒装。例如:

Only then did I realize that I was wrong.

Only when he is seriously ill does he go to hospital.

但当 only修饰其状语不位于句首,或位于句首的 only用来修饰的不是状语,而是主语,则不倒装。例如:

Only a doctor can do it.

6. so/ neither/ nor等位于句首,表示“也是”,“也不是”,进行部分倒装。例如:

Tom is very kind, so am I.

He doesn't care much for sweets, nor do I.

但当 so/ neither/ nor等引导的句子主谓不倒装时,则表示后者对前者说话的肯定和确认。例如:

Tom is not good at English.

Neither he is.

7. as引导让步状语从句时,从句用部分倒装。结构为:名词(不加冠词)/形容词/副词+ as+主语+谓语。例如:

Child as he was, he could speak two languages.

Tired as she was, she went on cooking.

8.在含有 were/ should/ had的虚拟条件句中,可以省略 if,而把这三个词提前。例如:

Had you told me earlier, I could have done better.

Should anyone call, tell me in time.

Were I you, I would try it again.

9. such作表语置于句首时,则部分倒装。例如:

Such is my teacher.

Such are the words.

10.在某些表示祝愿的句子里。例如:

May you be happy!