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巧记英语单词,构词法是关键!

积累单词是英语学习的一个必不可少的环节,词汇量的大小在一定程度上决定着一个学生解读英语知识的能力。实际而言,则反映在学生对完型填空以及阅读理解的文章大意把握程度上。掌握好一些基本的单词构词法,对于巧记单词有很大的帮助,下面我们一起来看看这些构词法的具体规则吧!

英语单词的构成方式主要有:合成法、转化法、派生法。此外,还有截短法、混合法和首字母缩略法等。

1.合成法:把两个或两相以上独立的词合成一个新词。

( 1)合成名词

名词/代词+名词: spaceship(宇宙飞船); blood-test(验血); she-wolf(母狼)

名词+动词 - ing形式: handwriting(书法); machine-building(机器制造)

名词+及物动词+ er/ orpain-killer(止痛药)

形容词+名词: shorthand(速记); highway(公路)

及物动词+名词: breakfast(早餐); pickpocket(扒手)

动词 - ing形式+名词: flying-fish(飞鱼); waiting-room(候车室); sleeping-pill(安眠药)

副词+动词: outbreak(爆发); output(输出); downfall(垮台)

动词+副词: turn-off(断开); get-together(联欢会;座谈会)

介词/副词+名词: afternoon(午后)

( 2)合成形容词

形容词/数词+名词+ - edkind-hearted; cold-blooded(冷血的); one-eyed(独眼的); three-legged

名词+名词+ - edpotato-shaped(马铃薯形状的)

名词/代词+动词过去分词: hand-made; self-educated; radio-equipped

名词/代词+形容: color-blind(色盲的)

形容词/数词+动词 - ing形式: left-hand(左撇子的)

形容词+动词 - ing形式: good-looking(相貌好看的); easy-going(脾气随和的)

副词+动词 - ing形式: hard-working(勤劳的); far-reaching(深远的); long-lasting(耐用的)

副词+形容词: ever-green trees(常青树)

形容词+形容词: light-blue(浅蓝色的)

动词+副词: see-through pool(透明的)

介词+名词: downhill(下坡的); uphill(上山的)

( 3)合成动词

副词+动词: ill-treat(虐待); undergo(经历); overhear(听见); overthrow(推翻)

名词/代词+动词: water-ski(滑水); mass-produce(大规模生产); sleep-walk(梦游)

形容词+动词: blacklist(列入黑名单); white-wash(粉刷); safe-guard(保卫)

( 4)合成副词

副词+副词: however(但是); moreover(而且); therefore(因此)

代词+副词: anywhere(任何地方); whatever(无论什么); somewhere; nowhere; everywhere

副词+名词: downstairs(在楼下); upstairs; upward; downward; westward; eastward

形容词+名词: anyway(无论如何)

( 5)合成代词 some/ any/ no可以与 - thing/ - one/ - body合成代词。如:

Anybody(任何人); something(某事); everything(一切); nobody(没有人); someone(每个人)

2.转换法:由一种词类转化为另一种词类的词。

( 1)动词转化为名词。如:

He visited the summer palace yesterday. 他昨天参观了颐和园。(动词)

we paid a visit to the scientist last week. 我们上星期拜拜访了那位科学家。(名词)

He likes a quiet smoke after supper. 他喜欢在晚饭后静静地抽了一会儿烟。(名词)

we stopped there for a swim. 我们在那儿停下来游了一会儿泳。

这类名词常与 give, have, make, take等动词搭配形成一个短语,表示一个动作。如:

give a shout(喊叫); give a kick(踢); take a seat(就座); take a bath(洗澡); have a swim(游泳); have a smoke(吸烟); make a bet(打赌); make a decision(商定)

又如: have a bath/ chat/ debate/ discussion/ dream/ flight/ interview/ lie/ look/ quarrel…; make a call/ demand/ guess/ jump/ show

( 2)名词转化为动词。如:

We should shoulder these responsibilities. 我们应当担负起这些责任来。

The hall can seat two thousand people. 大厅能坐 2000人。

He pinned great hopes on us. 他对我们寄托了很大希望。

They have booked their plane tickets. 他们已经定了飞机票。

( 3)形容词转化为动词。如:

The train slowed down to half its speed. 火车降了一半的速度。

( 4)形容词转化为副词。如:

How long is the line?(形容词)

how long have you lived there?(副词)

( 5)形容词转化为名词。如: the sick(病人); the beautiful(美好的事物); at the latest(最迟); at the most(至多); the true and the false(正确的与错误的); the french(法国人)等。

something has gone wrong with the machine. 机器出了点儿毛病。(形容词)

he didn't know the difference between right and wrong. 他不知道对与错的区别。(名词)

3.派生法:由词根( stems)加前缀( prefixes)和后缀( suffixes)构成新词。

①前缀

a -(形容词;副词): asleep, arise, awake, abroad(在国外), alone(独自)

co -(共同): co-exist, co-operate

over -(过于): overdo, oversimplify

anti -(反,防): anti-tank, anti-clockwise

re -(重复;再): return, redesign, reunite, remarry(再婚)

super -(超级;上层): superstar, superman, supermarket

sub -(下面的): subway, subconscious

tele -(远程): telephone, telegraph, telescope(望远镜)

bi -(双): bicycle, bimonthly, bilingual

mis -(误): mistake, misunderstand(误会)

inter -(相互;之间): international, interrelation

en -(使可能): encourage, enable(使成为可能)

dis -(否定): disappear, disagree, discourage, disappoint, dishonest

in -/ il -/ im -/ ir -(不;非): invisible(看不见的), illogical, illegal(非法的), impolite, impossible, irregular, irresponsible

un -/ non -(不;非): unfit, unfair, unknown, non-conductor(非导体)

②名词后缀

- er(……者): foreigner, thinker, swimmer, traveller

- ese(……地方的人): Chinese, portuguese, Japanese

- ian(精通……的人;……地方的人): musician, magician, physician, technician, Russian

- ist(专业人员): artist, specialist, pianist, physicist

- ment(性质;状态): government, movement, argument, engagement, development

- ion: expansion, discussion, decision

- dom: freedom, kingdom

- ance/ ence: acceptance, allowance, dependence, confidence

- ee: employee, interviewee, trainee

- ness(性质;状态): business, happiness, greatness, illness, darkness

- or(器具;……者): cooker, tractor, actor, visitor, professor

- ship: friendship, leadership, hardship, scholarship

- tion(动作;过程;结果): pollution, suggestion, invention

③形容词后缀

- al: practical, continual, educational, national

- an: American, European, Canadian, Italian, Australian

- ern: southern, northern, eastern

- ful: helpful, cheerful, grateful, useful, careful

- ary: revolutionary, secondary, imaginary

- ble: reasonable, horrible, comfortable, acceptable, terrible

- ish: foolish, childish, swedish, british, English

- ive: active, native, decisive, destructive, expensive

- y: rainy, dirty, sleepy, healthy

- less: careless, homeless, motherless, useless

- ant: important, significant, ignorant

- ous: serious, courageous, famous, continuous

- some: troublesome, tiresome, handsome, lonesome

④动词、副词和数词后缀

- fy(使……化): simplify, beautify, amplify, satisfy, electrify

- en(使……变得): strengthen, lengthen, widen

- ize(使……成为): realize(实现), modernize, apologize, organize

- ly(方式;程度): freely, badly, terribly, perfectly, truly, angrily

- wise: clockwise, otherwise, likewise

- ward (s)(方向): towards, backward, eastward, forward, outward

- teen(十): fourteen, fifteen, eighteen

- ty(整十位数): twenty, forty, thirty

- th(序数词): twelfth, ninth, twentieth

4.截短法:将单词缩写,词义和词性保持不变的英语构词法称为截短法,主要有截头、去尾、截头去尾等形式。

①截头,如: telephonephone; airplaneplane

②去尾,如: mathematicsmaths; examinationexam; kilogramkilo; laboratorylab; taxicabtaxi

③截头去尾,如: influenzaflu; refrigeratorfridge; prescriptionscript

5.混合法:英语构词还可以将两个词混合或各取一部分紧缩而成一个新词,前半部分表属性,后半部分表主体。这样的英语构词法就是混合法。如:

news broadcastnewscast(新闻广播); television broadcasttelecast(电视播送); smoke and fogsmog(烟雾); photo and graphyphotography(摄影); helicopter airportheliport(直升飞机场)

6.首字母缩略法,如:

BBC( british broadcasting corporation)英国广播公司; DIY( do it yourself)自己亲自做

NATO( north atlantic treaty organization)北约; SOS( save our ship)国际通用的呼救信号

UN( the united nations)联合国; USA( the united states of America)美国

VIP( very important person)重要人物; WTO( world trade organization)世界贸易组织

通过学习英语单词构词法,希望能对同学们巧记单词有所帮助哦!